50 male athletes with unilateral tendinopathy of the main body of the Achilles (average age 26.4, range 18-49 years)
Maffulli, et al (2008)
“To establish good face validity and content validity, the translation and cultural adaptation of the VISA-A questionnaire into Italian was performed in several steps. The English version was translated into Italian by a bilingual orthopaedic surgeon. The back translation of the Italian version into English was performed by another bilingual orthopaedic surgeon. The authors of this article compared the original version with the back translation.”
Group 1: 45 non-surgical patients in a primary care sports medicine clinic, with a diagnosis of Achilles tendinosis, paratendinitis, or partial rupture, Group 2: 14 pre-surgical patients referred to a sports orthopaedist for tendon surgery, with a diagnosis of Achilles tendinosis, paratendinitis, or partial rupture, Group 3: 63 university students (“young normally active people”), Group 4: 24 active, non-injured members of a running club
JM Robinson, et al (2001)
First, a focus group consisting of the principal questionnaire developer, a primary care sports medicine doctor, and two physiotherapists reviewed the items generated. Then, a group of 15 clinicians (including 8 physiotherapists, 4 primary care doctors, 1 orthopaedic surgeon, and 1 rehabilitation specialist) were asked to identify questions they felt were important in assessing the severity of Achilles tendon disorders. They were then shown the VISA-A to evaluate the questionnaire and asked if there were any questions they would add, delete, or modify. 14 had no questions to add, and none wanted any questions deleted or modified.
15 healthy individuals, 20-40 years old, 51 patients with achilles tendinopathy, 39-47 years old
Silbernagel, et al (2005)
The English version of VISA-A was translated by three people (all of whom worked in the medical field and had English as their second language) into the Swedish version. Next, those three translations were “synthesized into one Swedish version” by a panel of four physical therapists who specialized in musculoskeletal disorders. Finally, a pre-final version of the Swedish VISA-A (VISA-A-S) was pilot tested on five patients and five healthy subjects.
All native German speakers, >18 y.o, unilateral involvement, Excluded: complete ruptures, pregnant/nursing subjects, insertional Achilles tendinopathy, previous surgeries on involved LE, Haglund’s disease, LE radicular symptoms, Total n = 109, divided into 4 groups.
Lohrer, et al (2009)
To establish content validity of the VISA-A-G based on the VISA-A questionnaire there were six steps followed: translation involving three translators and an orthopedic surgeon, synthesis of the translations, back translation into English, committee review with health and language professionals, pre-testing, final review.