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RehabMeasures Instrument

Timed Unipedal Stance Test (Single leg support, one leg stance test)

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Assesses the static balance of clients in a sensory integration taxing condition.

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Instrument Details


Area of Assessment

Balance – Vestibular
Balance – Non-vestibular

Assessment Type

Performance Measure

Administration Mode

Paper & Pencil




  • Vestibular Disorders

Key Descriptions

  • The client is timed as to the length of time (upper limit typically = 30 sec) they are able to stand (preferably with shoes off) on one foot, first with eyes open, then eyes closed.
  • Arm position is not standardized, nor lifted foot position.

Number of Items

1; 2 parts

Equipment Required

  • Stopwatch

Time to Administer

2 minutes

Required Training

No Training

Age Ranges


18 - 64


Elderly Adult

65 +


Instrument Reviewers

Elizabeth Dannenbaum MscPT for the Vestibular EDGE task force of the Neurology section of the APTA.

Body Part

Lower Extremity

ICF Domain


Measurement Domain



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Mixed Populations

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Normative Data

Healthy Individuals:

El-Kashlan et al, 1998; Normative data for healthy individuals

Single leg stance : right foot (mean (sd))



Age (years)

Eyes Open: sec

Eyes Closed : sec


28.8 (4.4)

20.7 (9.5)


24.2 (9.3)

6.1 (4.7)


27.1 (6.4)

2.0 (4.7)


18.2 (10)

1.0 (3.9)

Springer BA, et al 2007 : In the healthy population (n = 549, 18-99 yo) the ability to stand unipedal eyes open and closed decreases with age, yet is not gender dependent. All ages have decreased score in the eyes closed condition (the mean score eyes closed in the 18-39 yo group was 13.1 sec

Test/Retest Reliability

Franchignoni F, et al 1998:  Found good test-rest reliability in healthy woman aged 55-71y.o: eyes open: 0.90-0.91, eyes closed: 0.74-0.75

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Franchignoni F, et al 1998 Found good inter-rater reliability in healthy woman aged 55-71: eyes open: 0.99, eyes closed 0.99  (Wilcoxon signed rank test, two evaluators simultaneously rated the same performance)

Vestibular Disorders

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Normative Data

Vestibular Hypofunction:

From Gill-Body et al 2000 study on balance and disability: Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (n = 44) EYES OPEN: mean 6.03/30 sec, SD 9.55, range 0-30, EYES CLOSED Mean 0.50/30, SD 0.96, range 0-3.65: Unilateral vestibular hypofunction (n = 41): EYES OPEN: mean 11.81/30 sec, SD 11.96, range 0-30, EYES CLOSED mean3.27/30sec, SD6.77, range 0-30.

Construct Validity

Mann GC et al 1996:Studied people with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (n = 28)  Single leg stance test is not correlated with Dizziness Handicap Score, yet has a highly significant, moderate correlation with Functional Reach score (r = 0.59, p = 0.001)


El-Kashlan, H. K., Shepard, N. T., et al. (1998). "Evaluation of clinical measures of equilibrium." Laryngoscope 108(3): 311-319. Find it on PubMed

Franchignoni, F., Tesio, L., et al. (1998). "Reliability of four simple, quantitative tests of balance and mobility in healthy elderly females." Aging (Milano) 10(1): 26-31. Find it on PubMed

Gill-Body, K. M., Beninato, M., et al. (2000). "Relationship among balance impairments, functional performance, and disability in people with peripheral vestibular hypofunction." Physical Therapy 80(8): 748-758. 

Mann, G., Whitney, S., et al. (1995). "Functional reach and single leg stance in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders." Journal of vestibular research: equilibrium & orientation 6(5): 343-353. 

Springer, B. A., Marin, R., et al. (2007). "Normative values for the unipedal stance test with eyes open and closed." J Geriatr Phys Ther 30(1): 8-15. Find it on PubMed