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PROMIS Pediatric – Pain Interference

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Domain focused, self-reported and parent-reported measures of global, physical, mental, and social health for adults and children in the general population and those living with a chronic condition.

Link to Instrument

Instrument Details

Acronym PROMIS

Area of Assessment

Life Participation



Actual Cost


Cost Description

Free for short forms, $499.99 annual subscription for NIH Toolbox

CDE Status


The instrument is freely available here: PROMIS website.

See General Page for currently available PROMIS Bank CDE Details.


Supplemental - Highly Recommended: Stroke, Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD) in studies of psychosocial functioning, quality-of-life, outcome, and long-term adjustment studies.

 Supplemental: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Chiari I Malformation (CM), Epilepsy, Friedreich's Ataxia (FA), Headache, Huntington's Disease (HD), Mitochondrial Disease (Mito), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Myasthenia Gravis (MG), Neuromuscular Diseases (NMD), Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/BMD), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Stroke, and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), and Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Exploratory: Cerebral Palsy (CP) Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy (DM) and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) and Sport-Related Concussion (SRC)

*Headache specific subtest recommendations : Anxiety (Adult/Pediatric), Depression (Adult/Pediatric), Sleep (Adult)

Key Descriptions

  • Usually 4-12 items for each section domain depending on which type of test is being
    performed (Short Form, CAT, or Profile)
  • Minimum and maximum scores depends on the form being used
  • Scoring: Item-levels are scored numerically for an individual's response to each question. PROMIS recommends the best way to find the total raw score is using the free HealthMeasures Scoring Service
    ( or a tool that can automatically calculate scores. Scores can also be added up by hand to find the total raw score. Then the raw score is converted to a T-score using the table in the Appendix of the link below. This standardizes the score with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10. Being above or below the standard deviation could be desirable or undesirable based on the domain being measured.
  • Higher scores means more of the concept being measured. Example = more pain interference

Number of Items

Item Bank
• Item bank: 20
• Short form: 8
Parent proxy report for pediatric patients
• Item bank: 13
• Short form: 8

Computer adaptive tests (CAT)
Items dynamically selected for administration from the item bank based on respondent’s previous answer. Usually between 4-12 items or questions.

Time to Administer

5 minutes

Required Training

No Training

Age Ranges

Preschool Children

2 - 5



6 - 12



13 - 17


Instrument Reviewers

Holly O’Hearn, SPT

Jensyn Bradley SPT, ATC, LAT

Chi-Lun Chiao, SPT

Holt McPherson, SPT

Kenna Peters, SPT

Corinne Woodbine, SPT

Duke University, School of Medicine, Division of Physical Therapy.

ICF Domain


Measurement Domain

General Health


  • PROMIS measures can be used in the general population and with adults and pediatric populations with a chronic condition(s)
  • PROMIS measures have a larger range of measurement than most conventional measures, decreasing floor and ceiling effects as a result
  • PROMIS measures have fewer items than conventional measures, thereby decreasing respondent burden. When used as computer adaptive tests, PROMIS measures usually require 4-6 items for precise measurement of health-related constructs
  • Translations: The assessments are available via PDF in Spanish and can be obtained in other languages by contacting

Pediatric Disorders

back to Populations

Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)

Nephrotic Syndrome: Selewski et al, 2017; n=127; Age Range=8-17; Severity= active nephrotic syndrome

  • MID = 3 points

Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Pediatric PROMIS Domain

Adjacent Categories

Mean MID (SD) for pwJIA


Pain Interference



Mild-Moderate Problems

3.3 (3.32)


Moderate-Severe Problems

5.8 (3.73)


Severe Problems

 7.55 (4.27)



Cut-Off Scores

Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Morgan et al 2017; n=4; Age Range=15-20; Severity = no problems/mild problems, mild/moderate problems, moderate/severe problems

Pediatric PROMIS Domain

Adjacent Categories

Pediatric patients with JIA Classifications

Pain Interference

No Problems


Mild Problems


Moderate Problems


Severe Problems


Normative Data

Nephrotic Syndrome: Selewski et al, 2017; n=127; Age Range=8-17; Severity= active nephrotic syndrome

  • Baseline
    • Mean score (n=127): 49.7 (11.1)
  • Event visit [occurred after remission or 3-months post baseline]
    • Mean score (n=112): 44.9 (11.2)
  • Final visit [12-months post-baseline]
    • Mean score (n=90): 44.7 (10.9)

Construct Validity

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Brandon et al, 2017; n=265; Age=12(9-15)

  • ICC=0.80 -- Excellent correlation to parent scores for pain interference.
  • ICC=0.71-- Adequate correlation to parent scores for fatigue.
  • ICC=0.42—Adequate correlation to parent scores for peer relationships.

ICC=0.52—Adequate correlation to parent scores for anxiety.


Pediatric Chronic Pain


Nephrotic Syndrome: Selewski et al, 2017; n=127; Age Range=8-17; Severity= active nephrotic syndrome

    • Adequate correlation with Peds QL Physical Functioning (ρ=-.63)
    • Adequate correlation with Peds QL Emotional Functioning (ρ=-.52)
    • Poor correlation with Peds QL Social Functioning (ρ=-.44)
    • Poor correlation with Peds QL School Functioning (ρ=-.46)
    • Adequate correlation with overall health-related QOL (ρ=-.66)

Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Jones, 2017; n=100 (at visit baseline); Age=15.8 (2.2)



Bivariate correlation (rpool) between pediatric PROMIS short forms and legacy measure subscalesa

Legacy measures















Functional Disability Inventory






-Summary score



-Physical function



-Emotional function



-Social function



-School function






-Summary score



-Pain and hurt



-Daily activity















-Summary score



-Effect on self









-Burden of childhood‐onset SLE






-Summary score






























-Psychosocial summary score



-Physical summary score



-Physical functioning



-Bodily pain



-General health perception












-Mental health






-Mental health



  • a Values are the pooled correlation coefficients (rpool) across visits (n = 280 patient visits). PROMIS = Patient‐Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; SLEDAI‐2K = Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; BILAG = British Isles Lupus Assessment Group index; MD‐global = physician global disease assessment; SDI = Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; PedsQL‐GC = Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale 4.0; PedsQL‐RM = Pediatric Quality of Life Rheumatology Module 3.0; SMILEY = Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters; C‐HAQ = Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire; CHQ‐PF50 = Child Health Questionnaire with 50 questions.
  • b Scoring: A = 12, B = 8, C = 1, D = 0, E = 0.
  • c On a 10‐point Likert scale, where 0 = inactive disease.
  • d Range 0–47, where 0 = absence of damage.
  • e P < 0.001 and r > 0.30.



Brandon, T. G., Becker, B. D., Bevans, K. B., Weiss, P. F. (2017). Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Tools for Collecting Patient Reported Outcomes in Children With Juvenile Arthritis. Arthritis care & research, 69(3), 393–402. doi:10.1002/acr.22937

Jones, J.T., Carle, A.C., Wootton, J., Liberio, B., Lee, J., Schanberg, L.E., Ying, J., Dewitt, E.M., Brunner, H.I. (2017). Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Short Forms for Use in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Arthritis care & research, 69(1), 133–142. doi:10.1002/acr.22927

Morgan, E.M., Mara, C.A., Huang, B., Barnett, K., Carle, A.C., Farrell, J.E., Cook, K.F. (2017).  Establishing clinical meaning and defining important differences for Patient-Reported  Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis using standard setting with patients, parents, and providers. Quality of Life Research, 26(3), 565–586. doi:10.1007/s11136-016-1468-2

Selewski, D. T., Troost, J. P., Cummings, D., Massengill, S. F., Gbadegesin, R. A.,  Greenbaum, L. A.,Shatat, I.F., Cai, Y., Kapur, G., Herbert, D., Somers, M.J., Trachtman, H., Pais, P., Seifert, M.E., Goebel, J., Sethna, C.B., Mahan, J.D., Gross, H.E., Herreschoff, E. Liu, Y., Carlozzi, N.E., Reeve, B.B., Dewalt, D. A.,  Gipson, D. S. (2017). Responsiveness of the PROMIS® measures to changes in disease status among pediatric nephrotic syndrome patients: a Midwest pediatric nephrology consortium study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 15(1), 166. doi:10.1186/s12955-017-0737-2