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RehabMeasures Instrument


The KT assesses cognitive functional performance.

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Instrument Details

Acronym KT

Area of Assessment

Attention & Working Memory
Executive Functioning
Life Participation

Assessment Type

Performance Measure

Administration Mode

Paper & Pencil




  • Stroke Recovery


Key Descriptions

  • A performance test designed to indicate one’s ability to perform daily tasks.
  • The clinician observes while the patient completes the task.
  • The clinician and patient then make the decisions about the details of the task to be completed.
  • The patient’s task is to prepare two hot drinks, one for the clinician and one for the patient.
  • If the client wants to prepare a beverage, allow them to determine what they want, and then ask for a drink that uses two different ingredients.
  • Assessing Performance. Scores are based on 13 indices of performance:
    1) Opening the water faucet
    2) Filling the kettle with about 2 cups of water
    3) Turning off the faucet
    4) Assembling the kettle
    5) Attaching the electric cord to the kettle
    6) Plugging the electric cord in an electric socket
    7) Turning on the kettle
    8) Assembling the ingredients
    9) Putting the ingredients into the cups
    10) Picking up the kettle when water boils
    11) Pouring the water into the cu
    12) Adding milk
    13) Indication of task completion (e.g. verbal, gesture, serving)
  • Each of the above items is scored on a 4-point scale based on the following criteria:
    0) Intact performance
    1) Slow and/or trial & error
    2) Received general cues
    3a) Received specific cueing
    3b) Incomplete or deficient performance
    4) Received physical demonstration or assistance
  • Maximum score is 52; higher scores indicate more severe problems in performance.

Number of Items


Equipment Required

  • An electric kettle – empty and disassembled parts
  • Ingredients for beverages, presented on a tray together with other ingredients as distracters
  • Instant coffee
  • Decaffeinated coffee
  • Regular tea
  • Herbal tea
  • Sugar
  • Artificial sweetener
  • Milk
  • Honey
  • Salt, Pepper & Oil
  • Necessary dishes and utensils together with distracters
  • 3 cups, milk pitcher
  • 1 bowl
  • 2 plates
  • 3 tea spoons
  • 1 large spoon
  • 2 forks
  • 1 knife & can opener

Time to Administer

10-30 minutes

Required Training

No Training

Age Ranges


13 - 17



18 - 64


Elderly Adult

65 +


ICF Domain


Measurement Domain

Activities of Daily Living


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Normative Data

Acute Stroke: (Hartman-Maeir et al, 2009; Hospital 1: n = 10; mean age = 79.3 (5.8); Hospital 2: n = 11 mean age = 77.82 (5.1) years; assessed within one month of stroke; Israeli Sample) 

  • Range = 1–29; mean 9.34 (5.79) points

Test/Retest Reliability

Acute Stroke: (Hartman-Maeir et al, 2009)

Four experienced occupational therapists (two from each hospital) rated patient on the Kettle Test

  • Excellent (Spearman) correlations for Kettle Test total scores from both rater-pairs (Hospital 1: r = 0.851, p = 0.001; Hospital 2: r = 0.916, p = 0.000)

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Acute Stroke: (Hartman-Maeir et al, 2009; assessed within one month of stroke; rated by 4 experienced occupational therapists at two hospitals) 

  • Excellent test-retest reliability (r's ranged from 0.851 to 0.916)

Construct Validity

Elderly Population: (Hartman-Maeir et al, 2004; n = 41; mean age = 75.2 years; referred due to suspected cognitive disability)

  • Excellent correlation with Mini-Mental Status Evaluation (r = 0.56)
  • Excellent correlation with Clock Drawing Test (r = 0.59)
  • Adequate correlation with Star Cancellation subtest of the Behavioral Inattention Test (r = 0.32)
  • Excellent correlation with caregiver ratings of ADLs (r = 0.53) and IADLs (r = 0.58)

Comparing stroke patients with a control group (controlling for years of education)

  • Stroke patients showed a wider range of performance (1–29) than the control group (0–3)


Pearson Correlation Coefficients of Functional Outcomes With the Kettle Test:





BADLs (FIM Motor Scale)

Safety Level (RTI Safety Rating Scale)

IADLs (IADLs Scale)

Kettle Test

– 0.759**

– 0.571**

– 0.505**

Mini-Mental Status Evaluation




Clock Drawing Test




Star Cancellation subtest of BIT




FIM Cognitive scale




*p < .05. **p < .01





Hartman-Maeir, A., Harel, H., et al. (2009). "Kettle test--a brief measure of cognitive functional performance. Reliability and validity in stroke rehabilitation." Am J Occup Ther 63(5): 592-599. Find it on PubMed

Hartman-Maeir, A., Katz, N., & Armon, N. (2004, July). Validity of a cognitive–functional observation (the “Kettle Test”) in an elderly sample with suspected dementia. Paper presented at the Israeli Society for Occupational Therapy Annual Conference, Haifa.