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Children Participation Questionnaire Rehab Measures Database

Children Participation Questionnaire

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Purpose

The CPQ is a parent-completed questionnaire that evaluates participation in children. The CPQ measures participation as an outcomes for 44 activities in six areas of occupations: activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, play, leisure, social participation, and education. Parents report on the intensity, child’s independence level, and their child’s enjoyment and their satisfaction.

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Instrument Details

Acronym CPQ

Area of Assessment

Activities of Daily Living
Life Participation
Occupational Performance
Social Relationships

Assessment Type

Proxy

Administration Mode

Paper & Pencil

Cost

Free

Cost Description

The assessment can be obtained from Rosenberg, Jarus, & Bart (2010) Appendix A.

Key Descriptions

  • 44 total items in 6 sections
    -Participation diversity: the number of items a child participates in (maximum of 44)
    -Participation intensity: child's mean participation frequency (on a scale from (0) never to (5) everyday)
    -Independence: assistance level (on a scale where 6 means fully independent
    -Child enjoyment: mean level of enjoyment (on a scale of 1-6)
    -Parent satisfaction: mean parent satisfaction with their child's performance (on a scale from 1-6 where 6 indicates highest enjoyment/satisfaction)
  • Parents should answer according to what their child does (what has been observed in the last three months), not what the child is capable of doing
  • In the event that an activity the child participates in is not mentioned in the questionnaire, add it to the questionnaire in the designated spot
  • Refer to the activities the child performs outside of school
  • Only in the article of “Education”, participation in preschool is considered, consult with the teacher and converse with your child if more information is needed

Number of Items

44

Equipment Required

  • CPQ Printed Form
  • Writing Utensil

Time to Administer

 minutes

Required Training

No Training

Age Ranges

Preschool

2 - 5

years

Child

6 - 12

years

Instrument Reviewers

Lisa Lodesky, OTS; Anneka Roderick, OTS; & Alyssa Irgang, OTS at UIC

ICF Domain

Participation

Measurement Domain

Activities of Daily Living
Cognition
Motor

Considerations

Although there is are Iranian and Persian versions of the CPQ and corresponding psychometric properties, there was not an English translation available. The citation provided below is for the Persian CPQ in Arabic.

Amini, M., Hassani-Mehraban, A., & Rostamzadeh, O. (2016). Translation, cultural adaptation, and face, content, and convergent validity of children participation questionnaire into Persian. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 5, 151–157.

Pediatric Disorders

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Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

Preschool Children With Mild to Moderate Developmental Difficulties:

(Calculated from Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010; n= 100; Young preschoolers’ group mean age = 4.48 ; Older preschoolers’ group mean age = 5.65)

 

Children with a Disability

Children without a Disability

Diversity

1.160

1.064

Intensity

0.093

0.099

Independence

0.197

0.156

Child Enjoyment

0.170

0.139

Parent Satisfaction

0.209

0.133

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Preschool Children With Mild to Moderate Developmental Difficulties:

(Calculated from Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

 

Children with a Disability

Children without a Disability

Diversity

3.22

2.95

Intensity

0.26

0.28

Independence

0.55

0.43

Child Enjoyment

0.47

0.39

Parent Satisfaction

0.58

0.37

Normative Data

Preschool Children With and Without Disabilities

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

 

Children with disabilities (N= 231)

Children without disabilities (N= 249)

Participation diversity

38.28 + 2.90

39.02 + 2.66

Participation intensity

3.86 + 0.28

3.96 + 0.30

Independence level

4.95 + 0.57

5.23 + 0.45

Child enjoyment

5.27 + 0.44

5.53 + 0.36

Parent satisfaction

5.12 + 0.58

5.57 + 0.37

Test/Retest Reliability

Preschool Children With Mild to Moderate Developmental Difficulties:

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

  • Test-retest reliability: (ICC = .84 to .90)

Internal Consistency

Preschool Children With Mild to Moderate Developmental Difficulties:

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

  • Adequate intensity (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79)

  • Excellent independence (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89)

  • Excellent child enjoyment (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88)

  • Excellent parent satisfaction (Cronbach’s alpha 0.90)

Construct Validity

Children with and without Disabilities:

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

  • A significant interaction effect was found for group and family income in the participation diversity measure (p < 0.05)

  • A significant main effect for family income was found for the participation intensity measure (p < 0.001), independence measure (p < 0.05), and child enjoyment (p < 0.05)

Children with and without Disabilities:

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

  • No significant interaction effect was found for group and age

  • A significant main effect was found for total participation diversity (p < 0.05) and total independence level (p < 0.01)

  • No significant main effect was found for intensity, child enjoyment, and parent satisfaction

  • A significant main effect for group was found in that children with disabilities participated in fewer activities (p < 0.001), in lower frequencies (p < 0.001), were less independent (p < 0.001), experienced decreased enjoyment (p < 0.001), and their parents were less satisfied with their enjoyment (p < 0.001).

Preschool Children With Mild to Moderate Developmental Difficulties

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

  • Excellent correlations between diversity and IADL (r= 0.67), social participation (r= 0.71), and education (r= 0.68).

  • Excellent correlations between intensity total and leisure (r= 0.75), and social participation (r= 0.63)

  • Adequate correlations between intensity total and IADL (r= 0.53), play (r= 0.57), and education (r= 0.5)

  • Poor correlation between intensity total and ADL (r= 0.18)

  • Excellent correlations between independence total and ADL (r= 0.62), IADL (r= 0.64), play (r= 0.67), leisure (r= 0.82), social participation (r= 0.72), education (r= 0.7)

  • Excellent correlations between child enjoyment total and ADL (r= 0.68), IADL (r= 0.62), play (r=0.62), leisure (r=0.77), social participation (r=0.63), education (r=0.75)

  • Excellent correlations between parent satisfaction and ADL (r= 0.67), IADL (r= 0.65), play (r= 0.73), leisure (r= 0.82), social participation (r= 0.73), and education (r= 0.74) 

  • Adequate correlations between diversity and play (r=0.40) and leisure (r=0.51)

  • Adequate correlations between intensity total and IADL (r=0.53), play (r=0.57), and education (r= 0.50)

  • Poor correlations between diversity and ADL (r=0.16)

  • Poor correlation between intensity total and ADL (r=0.18)

Convergent Validity:

Spearman correlations between the CPQ and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) measures for children without developmental disabilities

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010; n= 108; Mean Age= 4-6.11)

  • Adequate correlation between VABS Communication and participation diversity (r= 0.42)

  • Poor correlation between VABS Communication and independence level (r= 0.29), participation intensity (r= 0.18), child enjoyment (r= 0.16), and parent satisfaction (r= 0.10).

  • Adequate correlation between VABS ADL and participation diversity (r= 0.40), participation intensity (r= 0.47), independence level (r= 0.55), child enjoyment (r= 0.41), and parent satisfaction (r=.33).

  • Adequate correlation between VABS Socialisation and participation diversity (r=0.36), participation intensity (r=0.36), independence level (r=0.36)

  • Poor correlation between VABS Socialisation and child enjoyment (r=0.21) and parent satisfaction (r=0.20)

  • Adequate correlation between VABS Motor and participation diversity (r= 0.38), participation intensity (r= 0.41), independence level (r= 0.46)

  • Poor correlation between VABS Motor and child enjoyment (r= 0.24), parent satisfaction (r= 0.22)

Spearman correlations between the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (ERQ) factors and the CPQ measures

(Rosenberg, Jarus, Ratzon, & Bart, 2010)

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for home and participation diversity (r=-0.13).

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for home and participation intensity (r=-0.22).

  • Adequate correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for home and independence level (r=-.37).

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for home and child enjoyment (r=-.26).

  • Adequate correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for home and parent satisfaction (r=-.32).

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for community and participation diversity (r=-.15).

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for community and participation intensity (r=-.14).

  • Poor correlation between ERQ and CPQ for community and independence level (r=-.15).

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for community and child enjoyment (r=-.08)

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for community and parent satisfaction (r=-.13)

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for education and participation diversity (r=-.08)

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for education and participation intensity (r=-.22)

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for education and independence level (r=-.30)

  • Poor correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for education and child enjoyment (r=-.26)

  • Adequate correlation between the ERQ and CPQ for education and parent satisfaction (r=-.35)

Content Validity

Content validity of the CPQ was determined by six pediatric occupational therapists and three occupational therapy academic researchers. Their feedback on the initial CPQ caused the authors alter their items and measurement scales slightly. Following these alterations, three pediatric occupational therapy teams pilot tested the questionnaire with a group of 20 parents (10 with children in the study, 10 with children not in the study). Parent feedback on the revised CPQ was that the categories addressed all aspects of the child’s life. Parent feedback also assisted in final wording. Once this process was complete, the authors designed a final version. (Rosenberg, Jarus, & Bart, 2010)

Floor/Ceiling Effects

Preschool Children With Mild to Moderate Developmental Difficulties

(Rosenberg, Jarus & Bart, 2010)

  • Authors accounted for ceiling effect by increasing measurement scales from 1-4 to 1-6 to increase variability in the final version

Cerebral Palsy

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Test/Retest Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability:

(Amini, Mehraban, Rostamzadeh, & Mehdizadeh, 2017; n= 120; Mean Age= 5.1, Iranian translation)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in diversity and self care: (ICC= 0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in intensity and self-care (ICC= 0.97)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in independence level and self care (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in child enjoyment and self-care (ICC= 0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in parent satisfaction and self-care (ICC= 0.92)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in diversity and home participation (ICC=0.92)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in intensity and home participation (ICC=0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in independence level and home participation (ICC=0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in child enjoyment and home participation (ICC=0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in parent satisfaction and home participation (ICC=0.97)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in play and diversity (ICC= 0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in play and intensity (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in play and independence level (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in play and child enjoyment (ICC= 0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in play and parent satisfaction (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in diversity and leisure (ICC=0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in intensity and leisure (ICC=0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in independence level and leisure (ICC=0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in child enjoyment and leisure (ICC=0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in parent satisfaction and leisure (ICC=0.95)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in social participation and diversity (ICC= 0.92)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in social participation and intensity (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in social participation and independence level (ICC= 0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in social participation and child enjoyment (ICC= 0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in social participation and parent satisfaction (ICC= 0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in educational environment and diversity (ICC= 0.96)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in educational environment and intensity (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in educational environment and independence level (ICC= 0.99)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in educational environment and child enjoyment (ICC= 0.98)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability in in educational environment and parent satisfaction (ICC= 0.97)

Internal Consistency

Internal Consistency:

(Amini et al., 2017)

  • Excellent internal consistency between diversity and self-care (r=0.66), home participation (r=0.99), play (r=0.70), leisure (r=0.77), social participation (r=0.67), educational environment (r=0.77)

  • Excellent internal consistency between intensity and self-care (r=0.66), home participation (r=0.99), play (0.70), leisure (0.77), social participation (r=0.70), educational environment (r=0.77)

  • Excellent internal consistency between independence level and self-care (r=0.79), home participation (r=0.64), play (r=0.81), leisure (r=0.77), social participation (r=0.76), educational environment (r=0.85)

  • Excellent internal consistency between child enjoyment and self care (r=0.77), home participation (r=0.66), play (r=0.86), leisure (r=0.76), social participation (r=0.67) and educational environment (r=0.80)

  • Excellent internal consistency between parent satisfaction and self care (r=0.80), home participation (r=0.76), play (r=0.82), leisure (r=0.76), social participation (r=0.69) and educational environment (r=0.79).

Construct Validity

Convergent Validity: 

Spearman correlations between the I-CPQ and VABS subscales of children with cerebral palsy

(Amini et al., 2017)

  • Adequate correlation between VABS communication and diversity (r=0.42)

  • Poor correlation between VABS communication and intensity (r=0.16), independence level (r=0.30), child enjoyment (r=0.21), and parent satisfaction (r=0.10)

  • Adequate correlation between VABS ADL and diversity (r=0..40), intensity (r=0.52), independence level (r=0.58), child enjoyment (r=0.40), and parent satisfaction (r=0.35).

  • Adequate correlation between VABS socialization and diversity (r=0.38), intensity (r=0.42), independence level (r=0.38), child enjoyment (r=0.43), and parent satisfaction (r=0.50).

  • Adequate correlation between VABS motor and diversity (r=0.40), intensity (r=0.38), independence level (r=0.46)

  • Poor correlation between VABS motor and child enjoyment (r=0.28) and parent satisfaction (r=0.30)

Bibliography

Amini, M., Mehraban, A. H., Rostamzadeh, O., & Mehdizadeh, F. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Iranian-Children Participation Questionnaire (I-CPQ) when used with parents of preschool children with cerebral palsy. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 31(4). doi: 10.1080/07380577.2017.1382753

Rosenberg, L., Jarus, T., Ratzon, N. Z., & Bart, O. (2010). Development and initial validation of the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (ERQ). Research in Developmental Disabilities 31(6): 1323-1331. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.07.009

Rosenberg, L., Jarus, T., & Bart, O. (2010). Development and initial validation of the Child Participation Scale (CPQ). Disability and Rehabilitation 32(20): 1633-44. doi: 10.3109/09638281003611086

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