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RehabMeasures Database

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire/Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

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Purpose

The BPAQ evaluates activity of individuals over the previous 12 months.

The MBPAQ (BHPAQ) evaluates habitual physical activities in individuals.

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Instrument Details

Acronym Baecke

Area of Assessment

Activities of Daily Living

Administration Mode

Paper & Pencil

Cost

Free

Actual Cost

$0.00

Key Descriptions

  • Activities are scored on a scale of 1-5. A score of 5 indicates the most activity and 1 indicates the least activity for each index.
    1. Work Index Calculation
    {I1 + (6-I2 ) + I3 + I4 + I5 + I6 + I7 + I8 }/8
    2. Sport Index
    {I9+ I10 + I11 + I12}/4
    3. Leisure-Time
    ▪ {(6-I13)+ I14 + I15 + I16}/4
  • The total score is obtained by summating the work index, sport index and leisure index
  • Modified Baeke:
    Activities are scored on a scale of 1-5 with the total scored from 3-15. A score of 5 indicates the most activity and 1 indicates the least activity for each index.
    1. Household score: (Q1 + Q2 + Q3+ Q4 + Q5 + Q6 + Q7 + Q8 + Q9 + Q10)/10
    2. Sport score: ∑ (intensity coefficient*hours per wk coefficient*months per year coefficient ) for up to two sports
    3. Leisure time activity score: ∑( intensity coefficient* hours per week coefficient*months per year coefficient) for up to six activities
  • Modified Baeke:
    The total score is obtained by summing the household score, sport score, and leisure time activity score

Number of Items

Baeke:
Self-administered, 16-item questionnaire within 3 categories of occupational activities (index), sport activities (index), and recreational (leisure-time) activities (index)

Modified Baeke:
Clinician administered, 19-item questionnaire within 3 categories (referred to as indices) of household activities, sports activities, and leisure time activities

Equipment Required

  • Paper
  • Writing Instrument

Time to Administer

30 minutes

The modified version takes approximately 30 minutes. Since the standard Baeke is self-administered, timing varies.

Required Training

No Training

Instrument Reviewers

Taylor Arman, MSEd, ATC and Jennifer Wiley, PT, DPT

ICF Domain

Activity

Measurement Domain

Activities of Daily Living

Considerations

  • No true “gold standard” in assessing physical activity currently exists. Because of this, other measurement techniques exist and are accepted (i.e. accelerometer (step count), heart rate monitor, double labeled water, and questionnaires) (Ono et al., 2007)
  • Validity data on the sport index may be limited due to the inability to perform all comparison measurements in all environments (i.e., wearing a pedometer during aquatic exercise) (Ono et al., 2007)
  • Test-retest reliability has been reported for populations that do not work (i.e. student). To account for this, the work index was not included in that analysis (Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • A consideration for use of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire vs. Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire is the ability for the patient to self-report. The Modified Baecke accounts for potential limitations in reading abilities by requiring clinician administration (Voorrips et al., 1991). Regardless, both required intact cognitive function for accuracy of reporting. Use of a mental status questionnaire (i.e. Mini-Mental Status Examination) may be needed to ensure accurate reporting is feasible (Moore et al., 2008)

Older Adults and Geriatric Care

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Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Elderly adults (calculated from statistics in Voorrips et al., 1991; 29 elderly adults aged 60-83)

  • SEM = 0.86

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Elderly adults (calculated from statistics in Voorrips et al., 1991)

  • MDC95 = 2.38

Test/Retest Reliability

Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Elderly Adults (Voorrips et al., 1991)

  • Twenty day test-retest interval
    • Excellent test-retest reliability for total score (Spearman’s rho = 0.89)
  • Ninty day test-retest interval
    • Excellent for work index (Spearman’s rho = 0.88)
    • Excellent for sport index (Spearman’s rho = 0.81)
    • Adequate for leisure-time index (Spearman’s rho = 0.74)

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Elderly Adults (Hertogh et al., 2008; n = 21 including 11 women, Mean age 69.9 years, Physical Activity Ratio = ratio of total energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate)

  • Adequate correlation between Physical Activity Ratio and total score (r = 0.54)
  • Adequate correlation between Physical Activity Ratio and total score in men (r = 0.56)
  • Adequate correlation between Physical Activity Ratio and total score in women (0.43)

Construct Validity

Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Convergent Validity

Healthy Elderly (Voorrips et al., 1991)

  • Excellent correlation between 24 hour recall of activity and total score (r = 0.78)
  • Excellent correlation between step counts and total score (r = 0.72)

Discriminant Validity

Elderly Adults (Moore et al., 2008; n = 54; ≥ 50 years of age)

  • Poor correlation between upper body strength and total score (r = 0.18)
  • Poor correlation between upper body flexibility and total score (r = 0.14)
  • Poor correlation between lower body strength and total score (r = 0.20)
  • Poor correlation between balance and coordination and total score (r = .17)
  • Poor correlation between endurance and total score (r = 0.14)
  • Poor correlation between total Physical Functional Performance score and total score (r = 0.17)

Non-Specific Patient Population

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Normative Data

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Healthy adults (Baecke et al., 1982; males n = 139, females n = 167 20-32 years of age)

 

Male (n=139)

Mean (SD)

Females (n=167)

Mean (SD)

Work Index

2.6 (0.1)

2.9 (0.0)

Sport Index

2.8 (0.1)

2.4 (0.1)

Leisure-time Index

2.8 (0.1)

3.1 (0.0)

Test/Retest Reliability

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Healthy Adults (Baecke et al., 1982)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability for work index (ICC = 0.88)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for sport index (ICC = 0.81)
  • Adequate test-retest reliability for leisure-time index (ICC = 0.74)

 

Healthy Adults(Florindo & Latorre, 2003; n = 21 male college students, mean age = 32.6)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability for sum of sport and leisure-time indices (ICC = 0.77)
  • Adequate test-retest reliability for sport index (ICC = 0.69)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for leisure-time index (ICC = 0.80)

 

Healthy Adults (Jacobs et al., 1993; n=; 64-73 years of age)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability for work index (ICC = 0.78)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for sport index (ICC = 0.90)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for leisure-time index (ICC = 0.86)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for total score (ICC = 0.93)

Construct Validity

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Healthy Adults: Convergent Validity

  • Adequate correlation in males between level of education and work index (r = -0.56) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Adequate correlation in males between level of education and leisure-time index (r = 0.38) (Baecke et al., 1982
  • Adequate correlation in females between level of education and leisure-time index (r = 0.34) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Adequate correlation between VO2 Max and total score (r = 0.54) (Jacobs et al., 1993)
  • Adequate correlation between 4 week physical activity history and total score and (r = 0.37) (Jacobs et al., 1993)
  • Adequate correlation between percent body fat and total score (r= -0.49) (Jacobs et al., 1993)
  • Adequate correlation between Index of Physical Exercise and leisure-time index (r= 0.56) (Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • Adequate for correlation between Index of Physical Exercise and sum of sport and leisure-time indices (r = 0.46)(Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • Excellent correlation between Index of Locomotion Activities leisure-time index (r = 0.64) (Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • Adequate correlation between Index of Locomotion Activities and sum of sport and leisure-time indices (r = 0.51) (Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • Adequate correlation between caloric intake and total score (r = 0.40) (Miller et al., 1993; n = 33 physical therapists; 28-30 years of age)
  • Adequate correlation between caloric intake and total score (r = 0.38) (Albanes et al., 1990; n= 21; 36 years of age)

Healthy Adults: Discriminant Validity

  • Poor correlation in males between level of education and sports index (r = 0.13) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in females between level of education and work index (r = -0.25) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in females between level of education and sport index (r = 0.17) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in males between Subjective Experience of Work Load and work index (r = 0.11) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in males between Subjective Experience of Work Load and sport index (r = -0.20) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in males between Subjective Experience of Work Load and leisure-time index (r = -0.29) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in females between Subjective Experience of Work Load and work index (r = 0.09) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in females between Subjective Experience of Work Load and sport index (r = -0.24) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation in females between Subjective Experience of Work Load and leisure-time index (r = -0.18) (Baecke et al., 1982)
  • Poor correlation between and caloric expenditure and total score (r = -0.08) (Jacobs et al., 1993)
  • Poor correlation between Index of Physical Exercise and leisure-time index (r = 0.28) (Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • Poor correlation between Index of Locomotion Activities and sport index (r = 0.25) (Florindo & Latorre, 2003)
  • Poor correlation between 7 day recall and total score (r = 0.07) (Miller et al., 1993)
  • Poor correlation between 3 day record and total score (r = 0.13) (Miller et al., 1993)
  • Poor correlation between caloric intake minus resting energy expenditure and total score (r = 0.21) (Albanes et al., 1990)

Joint Pain and Fractures

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Test/Retest Reliability

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Women with Hip Disorders (Ono et al., 2007, n = 61 Japanese women, unilateral or bilateral hip disorders, mean age = 53.3, BPAQ double translated version, subset of sample used for reliability testing)

  • Excellent test-retest reliability for work index (ICC = 0.84)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for sport index (ICC = 0.83)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for leisure-time index(ICC = 0.78)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for total score (ICC = 0.87)

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Women with Hip Disorders (Ono et al., 2007)

  • Adequate correlation between step counts on a pedometer and work index (rho  = 0.42)
  • Adequate correlation between step counts and sport index (rho = 0.30)
  • Adequate correlation between step counts and leisure-time index (rho = 0.42)
  • Adequate correlation between step counts and total score (rho = 0.49)

Chronic Pain

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Test/Retest Reliability

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Chronic Low Back Pain (Carvalho et al., 2016; n = 73, mean age 37.2 [12.2])

  • Excellent test-retest reliability for work index (ICC = 0.84)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for sport index (ICC = 0.83)
  • Adequate test-retest reliability for leisure-time index (ICC = 0.61)
  • Excellent test-retest reliability for total score (ICC = 0.77)

Construct Validity

Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire

Chronic Low Back Pain (Carvalho et al., 2016)

  • Poor correlation between steps/day and total score (r = 0.27)
  • Poor correlation between pedometer-based stepping activity per minute and total score (r = 0.18)
  • Poor correlation between minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity and total score (r = 0.27)
  • Poor correlation between 24 hour average pain and total score (r = -0.14)
  • Poor correlation between Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and total score (r = -0.01)

Bibliography

Albanes, D., Conway, J. M., Taylor, P. R., Moe, P. W., & Judd, J. (1990). Validation and comparison of eight physical activity questionnaires. Epidemiology, 1(1), 65-71. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/20065626

Baecke, J. A. J., Burema, J., & Frijters, J. E. R. (1982). A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 36(5), 936-942.

Carvalho, F. A., Morelhao, P. K., Franco, M. R., Maher, C. G., Smeets, R. J. E. M., Oliveria, C. B. … Pinto, R. Z. (2017). Reliability and validity of two multidimensional self-reported activity questionnaires in people with chronic low back pain. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 27, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2016.12.014

Florindo, A. A., & Latorre, M. R. D. O. (2003). Validation and reliability of the Baecke questionnaire for the evaluation of habitual physical activity in adult men. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 9(3), 129-135. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-86922003000300002

Hertogh, E. M., Monninkhof, E. M., Schouten, E. G., Peeters, P. H. M., & Schuit, A. J. (2008). Validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire: Comparison with energy expenditure according to the doubly labeled water method. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(30). https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-5-30 

Jacobs, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Hartman, T. J., Leon, A. S. (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25(1), 81-91. http://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199301000-00012

Miller, D. J., Freedson, P. S., & Kline, G. M. (1993). Comparison of activity levels using the Caltrac accelerometer and five questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 26(3), 376-82. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8183104

Moore, D. S., Ellis, R., Allen, P. D., Cherry, K. E., Monroe, P. A., O’Neil, C. E., Wood, R. H. (2008). Construct validation of physical activity surveys in culturally diverse older adults: A comparison of four commonly used questionnaires. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(1), 42-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2008.10599459

Ono, R., Hirata, S., Yamada, M., Nishiyama, T., Kurosaka, M., Tamura, Y.  (2007). Reliability and validity of the Baecke physical activity questionnaire in adult women with hip disorders. BioMed Central Musculoskeletal Disorders, 8(61), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186%2F1471-2474-8-61

van Popple, M. N. M., Chinapaw, M. J. M., Mokkink, L. B., van Mechelen, W., Terwee, C. B. (2010). Physical activity questionnaires for adults: A systematic review of measurement properties. Sports Medicine, 40(7), 565-600. http://doi.org/10.2165/11531930-000000000-00000

Voorrips, L. E., Ravelli, A. C. J., Dongelmans, P. C. A., Deurenberg, P., Van Staveren, W. A. (1991). A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(8), 974-979. http://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199108000-00015

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