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Rehab Measures Instrument

Action Research Arm Test

Last Updated

Purpose

The ARAT assesses upper limb functioning using observational methods.

Link to Instrument

instrument details

Acronym ARAT

Area of Assessment

Activities of Daily Living
Coordination
Dexterity
Upper Extremity Function

Assessment Type

Observer

Administration Mode

Paper & Pencil

Cost

Not Free

Actual Cost

$525.00

Cost Description

The cost of the kit is $525+ and can be purchased at http://www.saliarehab.com/arat.html or http://www.aratest.eu/ (outside USA)

Diagnosis/Conditions

  • Brain Injury
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Stroke Recovery

Key Descriptions

  • The ARAT's is a 19 item measure divided into 4 sub-tests (grasp, grip, pinch, and gross arm movement). Performance on each item is rated on a 4-point ordinal scale ranging from:
    3) Performs test normally
    2) Completes test, but takes abnormally long or has great difficulty
    1) Performs test partially
    0) Can perform no part of test
  • Lyle’s decision rules:
    1) Patients who achieve a maximum score on the first (most difficult) item are credited with having scored 3 on all subsequent items on that scale.
    2) If the patient scores less than 3 on the first item, then the second item is assessed.
    3) This is the easiest item, and if patients score 0 then they are unlikely to achieve a score above 0 for the remainder of the items and are credited with a zero for the other items.
    4) The maximum score on the ARTS is 57 points (possible range 0 to 57).
  • Items can also be summed (van der Lee et al., 2002).
  • See Yozbatiran et al. (2008) for standardized scoring protocol.

Number of Items

19

Equipment Required

  • Various sized wood blocks
  • Cricket ball
  • Stone
  • Jug and glass or two glasses
  • A small and larget tube
  • Washer and bolt
  • Ball bearing
  • A marble
  • A chair without arm rests
  • A table
  • A plank
  • A tin lid
  • Kit can be bought at http://www.aratest.eu/ or www.saliarehab.com

Time to Administer

5-15 minutes

Dependent on the number of items performed

Required Training

No Training

Age Ranges

Adolescent

13 - 17

years

Adult

18 - 64

years

Elderly Adult

65 +

years

Instrument Reviewers

Initially reviewed by the Rehabilitation Measures Team in 2011; Updated by Cara Weisbach, PT, DPT and Wendy Romney, PT, DPT, NCS and the SCI EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA with references from the chronic stroke population in 2012; Updated by Irene Ward, PT, DPT, NCS and the TBI EDGE task force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2012. Updated by Maggie Bland PT,DPT,NCS and Nancy Byl PT,MPH,PhD, FAPTA and the STROKEDGE II Task Force of the Neurology Section of the APTA in 2016.

Body Part

Upper Extremity

ICF Domain

Activity

Measurement Domain

Motor

Professional Association Recommendation

Recommendations for use of the instrument from the Neurology Section of the American Physical Therapy Association’s Multiple Sclerosis Taskforce (MSEDGE), Parkinson’s Taskforce (PD EDGE), Spinal Cord Injury Taskforce (PD EDGE), Stroke Taskforce (StrokEDGE), Traumatic Brain Injury Taskforce (TBI EDGE), and Vestibular Taskforce (Vestibular EDGE) are listed below. These recommendations were developed by a panel of research and clinical experts using a modified Delphi process.

For detailed information about how recommendations were made, please visit: http://www.neuropt.org/go/healthcare-professionals/neurology-section-outcome-measures-recommendations

Abbreviations:

 

HR

Highly Recommend

R

Recommend

LS / UR

Reasonable to use, but limited study in target group  / Unable to Recommend

NR

Not Recommended

Recommendations for use based on acuity level of the patient:

 

Acute

(CVA < 2 months post)

(SCI < 1 month post)

(Vestibular < 6 months post)

Subacute

(CVA 2 to 6 months)

(SCI 3 to 6 months)

Chronic

(> 6 months)

SCI EDGE

LS

LS

LS

StrokEDGE

R

R

R

Recommendations based on level of care in which the assessment is taken:

 

Acute Care

Inpatient Rehabilitation

Skilled Nursing Facility

Outpatient

Rehabilitation

Home Health

StrokEDGE

R

R

R

R

R

TBI EDGE

LS

LS

R

R

R

Recommendations based on SCI AIS Classification:

 

AIS A/B

AIS C/D

SCI EDGE

LS

LS

Recommendations for use based on ambulatory status after brain injury:

 

Completely Independent

Mildly dependant

Moderately Dependant

Severely Dependant

TBI EDGE

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Recommendations for entry-level physical therapy education and use in research:

 

Students should learn to administer this tool? (Y/N)

Students should be exposed to tool? (Y/N)

Appropriate for use in intervention research studies? (Y/N)

Is additional research warranted for this tool (Y/N)

SCI EDGE

No

No

No

Not reported

StrokEDGE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Not reported

TBI EDGE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Not reported

Considerations

  • An instructional video is available at http://www.aratest.eu/

  • The ARAT and WMFT are highly correlated, so they may not provide significant levels of incremental validity.

  • A Rasch analysis in Chen et al. 2012) suggested revising the original 4-point scale into a 3-point scale. Tasks of “place hand behind head” and “place hand on top of head” showed poor item fit and item bias relevant to participant’s ages.

  • Sivan et al. (2011) examined outcome measures used in robot-assisted exercise trials in stroke. The ARAT had high/excellent test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability, moderate construct validity and responsiveness, poor floor and ceiling effects, and a moderate burden overall. Also, for patients fewer than or more than six months post-stroke with moderate impairment (Fugl-Meyer > 25), the ARAT was a recommended measure of activity and participation.

  • Nordin et al. (2014) examined percent intra- and inter-rater reliability across 35 participants a median of 22 months post-stroke. Items 10, 11, 14, and 19 had some systematic disagreement within raters and items 1, 4, 17, and 19 between raters. Item 19 (hand to mouth) had the most disagreements. In general the greatest difficulties were deciding between a score of 2 or 3.

  • Croarkin et al. (2004) ranked different tests of upper extremity function based on psychometric properties. They ranked the ARAT as Level II: Established by evidence for inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity.

  • Velstra et al. (2011) examined how measures of upper extremity function related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The ARAT addressed the mobility at several joints category under the Body Functions and Body Structures domain 17 times. Under the Activities and Participation domain 1-time fine hand use was covered, 6 times for grasping, 1 for turning or twisting the hands or arms, and 1 for drinking. One item was found not linked.

Mixed Populations

back to Populations

Test/Retest Reliability

Chronic and Acute Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis & Traumatic Brain Injury: (Platz et al., 2005; n = 23)

Test-Retest Reliability (after 7 days)

 

 

 

Action Research Arm Test:

 

 

 

 

Rating

ICC

rho

Grasp

Excellent

0.949

0.965

Grip

Excellent

0.947

0.955

Pinch

Adequate

0.894

0.897

Gross movement

Excellent

0.976

0.976

Total score

Excellent

0.965

0.968

Fugl-Meyer Test, arm section

 

 

 

Motor function

Rating

ICC

rho

A Shoulder/elbow/forearm

Excellent

0.954

0 944

B Wrist

Excellent

0.973

0.961

C Hand

Excellent

0.958

0.941

D Co-ordination/speed

Excellent

0.936

0.947

Total motor score

Excellent

0.965

0.951

Sensation

Adequate

0.806

0.672

Passive joint motion/joint pain

Excellent

0.946

0.883

Box and Block Test:

 

 

 

 

Rating

ICC

rho

Total

Excellent

0.963

0.973

 

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Chronic and Acute Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis & Traumatic Brain Injury: (Platz et al., 2005; n = 44)

Interrater Reliability (between 2 raters)

 

 

 

Action Research Arm Test:

 

 

 

 

Rating

ICC

rho

Grasp

Excellent

0.997

0.999

Grip

Excellent

0.964

0.958

Pinch

Excellent

0.999

0.999

Gross movement

Excellent

0.984

0.984

Total score

Excellent

0.998

0.996

Fugl-Meyer Test, arm section

 

 

 

Motor function

Rating

ICC

rho

A Shoulder/elbow/forearm

Excellent

0.989

0 984

B Wrist

Excellent

0.987

0.983

C Hand

Excellent

0.987

0.984

D Co-ordination/speed

Excellent

0.971

0.971

Total motor score

Excellent

0.997

0.995

Sensation

Excellent

0.979

0.969

Passive joint motion/joint pain

Excellent

0.983

0.980

Box and Block Test:

Excellent

0.993

0.993

 

Construct Validity

Chronic and Acute Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis & Traumatic Brain Injury: (Platz et al., 2005; n = 56; mean age = 54, range = 13-92 years)

Construct Validity: correlational analysis (Spearman’s rho)

 

 

 

 

Fugl-Meyer motor

Action Research Arm Test

Box and Block Test

Action Research Arm Test

0.925

1

0.951

Fugl-Meyer motor

1

0.925

0.921

Fugl-Meyer sensation

0.239

0.298

0.285

Fugl-Meyer joint motion/pain

0.470

0.421

0.433

Box and Block Test

0.921

0.951

1

Motricity Index

0.861

0.811

0.798

Ashworth Scale

-0.422

-0.296

0.383

Modified Barthel Index

0.086

0.049

0.044

Correlational analysis were based on the (first) assessment of 56 patients

 

 

 

 

The above table indicate the ARAT's is strongly related to the:

  • Fugl-Meyer motor
  • Box and Block Test

  • Motricity Index

Negatively related to the Ashworth Scale, moderately related to the Fugl-Meyer sensation and joint motion/pain scales and Not related to the Modified Barthel Index

Content Validity

The ARAT is a modified version of the Upper Extremity Function Test (UEFT)

Stroke

back to Populations

Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)

(Simpson, 2013) A literature review identifying responsiveness data in patients post stroke (van der Lee, 2004 and Hsueh, 2002).

  • 1.3

  • Note: effect size for perceived effect ( e.g. MAL) were 1.66.2 times larger than the functional changes (measured ARAT or Wolf)

Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)

Stroke:

(Simpson, 2013)

  • MDC90 = 3.0

  • MDC95 = 3.5

Minimally Clinically Important Difference (MCID)

Chronic Stroke: (van der Lee et al., 2001; n = 20; mean age = 62 (IQR = 52.5–71.8) years; median time since stroke = 3.6 years; mean ARAT score = 29.2 points)

  • MCID = 10% of the measures total range (i.e. 5.7 points)

 

Chronic Stroke: (van der Lee et al., 2001; n = 22, mean age = 58.5 years; mean time since stroke = 3.6 years; Median baseline ARAT score = 38.0 points)

  • MCID = 5.7

 

Acute Stroke: (Lang et al., 2008; mean age = 64 (14); time between stroke and first assessment = 9.5 (4.5) days)

MCID=12-17 points

MCID Raw Score:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MCID if Dominant Side Affected

 

 

MCID if Nondominant Side Affected

 

 

 

Raw Value

Percentage of Scale

Effect Size

Raw Value

Percentage of Scale

Effect Size

ARAT

12

21

0.78

17

30

1.10

Normative Data

Chronic Stroke: (van der Lee et al., 2001)

  • Mean (SD) intake ARAT score 29.2 (12.5)
  • Mean (SD) intake Fugl-Meyer Assessment score 49.2 (9.9)

Item norms (based on healthy elderly adults): 

Subtest:

Item

Time Limit (s)

Grasp

Block 2.5cm

3.6

 

Block 5cm

3.5

 

Block 7.5cm

3.9

 

Ball 7.5cm

3.8

 

Stone

3.6

 

Block 10cm

4.2

Subtest:

Item

Time Limit (s)

Grip

Tube 2.25cm

4.2

 

Tube 1cm

4.3

 

Place washer over bolt

4

 

Pour water from glass to glass

7.9

Subtest:

Item

Time Limit (s)

Pinch

Large marble first finger and thumb

3.8

 

Large marble second finger and thumb

3.8

 

Large marble third finger and thumb

4.1

 

Small marble first finger and thumb

4

 

Small marble second finger and thumb

4.1

 

Small marble third finger and thumb

4.4

Subtest:

Item

Time Limit (s)

Gross Movement

Move hand to mouth

2.4

 

Place hand on top of head

2.7

 

Place hand behind head

2.7

Time limits (mean + 2 SD of the performance times of 20 healthy elderly subjects)
If performance is slower than the time limit or if the patient loses contact with the back of the chair during performance, the score is 2 instead of 3.

 

Acute Stroke: (Beebe and Lang, 2009; mean age = 56.9 (10.2), times since stroke onset = 18.6 (5.6) days)

Normative Data:

 

 

 

 

1 month

3 months

6 months

ARAT

26.4 (23.9)

39.5 (19.7)

41.3 (20.8)

Grip Strength (kg)

9.2 (9.6)

14.0 (10.3)

15.4 (11.4)

9HPT (sec)

88.8 (40.2)

67.8 (41.7)

60.8 (39.7)

SIS: Hand function

19.9 (28.0)

48.4 (32.7)

43.9 (34.2)

9HPT = 9-Hole Peg Test
SIS = Stroke Impact Scale-Hand

 

 

 

Interrater/Intrarater Reliability

Acute Stroke: (Nijland et al., 2010; n = 40; mean age = 60 (13.6) years; median ARAT score = 38; times since stroke onset < 6 months; Dutch sample)

  • Excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.92)

 

Chronic Stroke: (Van der Lee et al., 2001)

  • Excellent Interrater Reliability (ICC = 0.995)
  • Excellent Intrarater Reliability (ICC = 0.989)


Chronic Stroke: (Yozbatrin et al., 2008)

Interrater Reliability

Action Research Arm Test

 

 

 

 

Rating

ICC

rho

Grasp

Excellent

0.9992

1.0

Grip

Excellent

0.996

0.99

Pinch

Excellent

0.997

0.98

Gross Movement

Excellent

0.978

0.93

Total Score

Excellent

0.9986

0.96

 

Intrarater Reliability

Action Research Arm Test

 

 

 

 

Rating

ICC

rho

Grasp

Excellent

0.98

0.93

Grip

Excellent

0.97

0.93

Pinch

Excellent

0.99

0.98

Gross Movement

Excellent

0.93

0.91

Total Score

Excellent

0.99

0.99

(Page, 2015) Patients an average of 4.6 years since stroke with moderate upper extremity paresis

  • Excellent Intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99)

(Page, 2012) Patients greater than 12 months post-stroke with minimal upper extremity paresis enrolled in trial. Measurements were made before starting the trial, approximately 1 week apart.

  • Adequate Intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.89)

Internal Consistency

Acute Stroke: (Nijland et al, 2010)

  • Excellent Internal Consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.985)

Criterion Validity (Predictive/Concurrent)

Chronic Stroke: (van der Lee et al., 2001)

  • Evidence of concurrent validity confirmed by comparison with the upper limb subtest of the Fugl- Meyer Assessment and the Motor Assessment Scale.

 

Chronic Stroke: (Yozbatiran et al., 2008)

  • Excellent correlation between ARAT and arm motor score of the Fugl-Meyer (r = 0.94, p<0.01)

(Chen, 2012) Patients seen an average of 17.19 (±15.29) months post-stroke

  • Adequate predictive validity with the composite physical domain and hand domain of the Stroke Impact Scale (ρ = 0.45 and 0.58, p<0.001, respectively)

  • Excellent predictive validity with the performance time and functional ability scale on the Wolf Motor Function Test (ρ = -0.66 and 0.76, p<0.001, respectively), Motor Activity Log Amount of Use (30) and Quality of Movement (30) (ρ = 0.62 and 0.66, p<0.001, respectively)

(Page, 2015) Patients an average of 4.6 years since stroke with moderate upper extremity paresis

  • Excellent concurrent validity with the Wrist Stability and Hand Mobility Subscales of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (0.67-0.74, p < .001)

(O’Dell, 2014) Community-dwelling volunteers seen an average (mean (SD)) of 4.1 (4.5) years post-stroke for upper extremity robotics training

  • Excellent concurrent validity ( 0.79, p = 0.001) with the 9-item version of the Arm Motor Ability Test.

(Wei, 2011) Twenty-seven stroke participants with moderate motor impairment in their affected upper extremity, an average of 4.92 ±0.45 years post-stroke.

  • Excellent concurrent validity (0.81 – 0.96, p < 0.01) with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Motor Status Scale.

(Lin, 2010) Fifty-nine stroke participants an average of 16.14 ± 13.95 months post-stroke engaging in upper extremity training or placebo.

  • Adequate concurrent validity (0.31 – 0.54, p < 0.05) with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Activity Log-Amount of Use and Quality of Life, and Stroke Impact Scale Hand Function Domain.

(Chuang, 2012) Sixty-seven participants an average of 21.12 ± 13.63 months post-stroke had functional state of upper extremity skeletal muscle assessed with a Myoton-3 myometer to measure tone, elasticity and stiffness.

Pretreatment

  • Poor concurrent validity of the ARAT with muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness of the flexor carpi radialis (0.27, [p < 0.05], 0.02 [P>0.06], and 0.30 [p<0.05])

  • Poor concurrent validity with the ARAT and muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness of the extensor digitorum (-0.01 to -0.03) and the flexor carpi radialis (-0.07 to 0.10).

Posttreatment

  • Poor to Adequate concurrent validity of the ARAT with muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness of the flexor carpi radialis (0.29 [P<0.05], 0.03 [P>0.05) and 0.36,[ < 0.01])

  • Poor concurrent validity with the ARAT and the muscle tone, elasticity and stiffness of the extensor digitorum(-0.-8 to 0.19) and the flexor carpi ulnaris (-0.18 to 0.11)

(Edwards, 2012) Fifty-one post-stroke subjects as part of the VECTORS (constraint induced movement therapy) study assessed at Day 0 (9.5 ± 4.5), Day 14 (24.9 ± 10.6), Day 90 (110.8 ± 20.7).

  • Adequate to Excellent concurrent validity with the Wolf Motor Function Test, Functional Ability Score (WMFT FA)

 

Day 0

Day 14

Day 90

WMFT FA Function Score

0.745

0.827

0.863

WMFT FA Time Score

-0.641

-0.825

-0.772

WMFT FA Grip Score

0.702

0.631

0.553

 

(Lee, J., 2015) Fifteen subjects an average of 3.1 ± 2.3 years post-stroke who wore accelerometers while completing the ARAT

  • Poor concurrent validity (0.24) on the affected side, and Excellent concurrent validity on the non-affected side (0.91).

(Lee, G., 2015) Forty-three participants were recruited a mean 15.21 ± 3.32 months post-stroke for assessment.

  • An Adequate negative correlation was found (-0.41;p<0.05) with hypertonia (defined as a Modified Ashworth Scale Score of > 1+)

  • Adequate predictive validity (Cut-off ≤ 15.50/57 points, AUC .76 (95% CI 0.61-0.90, p <0.01). If a person had an ARAT score of ≤ 15.50/57 points, they had a 1.359 increased risk of having a Modified Ashworth Scale score of ≥ 1+ (p = 0.051, 95% CI 1.01-1.82)

(Li et al, 2015) A study with 95 individuals with first time stroke greater than one month post, < 2 on the Modified Ashworth and good mental status (MMST >24) reported significant and adequate concurrent and predictive correlations between arm kinematics (movement time) and the ARAT during reaching (with and without trunk constraint) .

Regression

Kinematic Variable

Adjusted R2

P value

 

Concurrent Validity Before Intervention

 

 

 

Trunk constraint

MT Pre

0.29

<0.001

 

Trunk Unconstraint

MT Pre

0.40

<0.001

 

Concurrent validity After Intervention

 

 

 

Trunk constraint

MT Pre

0.38

<0.001

 

Trunk Unconstraint

MT Pre

0.34

<0.001

 

Predictive Validity ARAT Post

 

 

 

Trunk constraint

MT Pre

0.33

<0.001

 

Trunk Unconstraint

MT Pre

0.36

<0.001

 

 

(Page, 2012) Patients greater than 12 months post-stroke with minimal upper extremity paresis enrolled in trial.

  • Excellent concurrent validy with the Wrist/Hand Subscales of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment.

(Hsieh, 2009) A cohort of 57 stroke participants (an average of 12.98±7.62 months post-stroke) with assessments completed prior to and after treatment in an effectiveness trial examining distributed constraint-induced therapy and bilateral arm training.

  • Poor predictive validity (Spearman ρ (95% CI)) between the ARAT and the Functional Independence Measure-Total Score (0.22 (-0.04, 0.46, not significant)) and the Functional Independence Measure-Motor Score (0.26 (0.00, 0.49, not significant)).

Construct Validity

(Awert et al (2015) 50 patients post first stroke ( < 5 years), participating in outpatient rehabilitation, capable of completing a self assessment questionnaire Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ) and strength testing (ARAT) .

  • Excellent correlations between the MHOQ and the ARAT for all patients (0.64; p<0.001) and for patients with arm impairments (0.60; P<0.000).

 

(Houwink, 2011) Twenty-one participants admitted to rehabilitation, with a stroke diagnosis occurring less than six weeks prior to admission.

  • Excellent cross-sectional (0.91, p < 0.001) and longitudinal, 3 months in between assessments, (0.71, p < 0.001) correlations with the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale.

(Rabadi and Rabadi 2006) A study of 104 patients in an acute stroke rehabilitation (16±9 days on average post stroke) measured the performance on the ARAT within 72 hours of admission and 24 hours before discharge as well as the FMA National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, FIM instrumental total score and FIM activities of daily living.

  • The Spearman rank correlation of ARAT was excellent with the FMA (rho=0.77 on admission and 0.87 on discharge, P<0.001), adequate with the FIM-ADL on admission and discharge (0.32; P<0.001) and adequate to poor for the FIM (0.33 admission and 0.21 discharge; P<0.001)

(Hsieh, 2009)

  • Excellent construct validity at pre-treatment and post-treatment was found between the ARAT and the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (0.73-0.74, p<0.01) and the Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (0.68-0.77, p<0.01).

  • Adequate to Excellent construct validity was found between the ARAT and the Wolf Motor Function Test-Performance Time (0.58-0.63, p<0.01).

  • Poor construct validity was found between the ARAT and the Functional Independence Measure-Motor Score (0.27-0.39, p<0.01).

Content Validity

The ARAT is a modified version of the Upper Extremity Function Test (UEFT)

Floor/Ceiling Effects

Acute Stroke: (Lin et al., 2009; n = 53; mean age = 64; Taiwanese sample)

% of Individuals who Experienced Floor and Ceiling Effects:

 

 

Days Post Stroke

Floor

Ceiling

14

41.5

9.4

30

17.0

20.8

90

11.3

20.8

180

11.3

22.6

 

Acute Stroke: (Nijland et al., 2010)

  • Floor effects for scores < 3
  • Ceiling effects for scores > 54

(Edwards, 2012)

% of Individuals who Experienced Floor and Ceiling Effects:

Days Post Stroke

Floor

Ceiling

Day 0 (see time frame above)

5.9

3.9

Day 14

2

22

Day 90

2.1

33

 

(Hsueh, 2002) Forty-eight participants undergoing rehabilitation. At admission it was a median of 24 days (range 7-53) post-stroke.

% of Individuals who Experienced Floor and Ceiling Effects:

 

Admission to rehabilitation Floor

Discharge from rehabilitation Ceiling

ARAT Total

52.1%

7%

ARAT Grasp

70.8%

27.1%

ARAT Pinch

72.9%

16.7%

ARAT Gross Movement

52.1%

29.2%

Responsiveness

Chronic Stroke: (van der Lee et al., 2002; n = 31 (RIQ = 52–66) years; mean baseline ARAT score = 30.27; > 1 year post stroke)

  • 1.2 points (using Lyle’s decision rule) 
  • 1.7 points (summing items)

 

Acute Stroke: (Lin et al., 2009; n = 53; mean age = 64; Taiwanese sample)

Responsiveness:

 

 

Days Post Stoke

Effect Rating

Interpretation

14–30

Small

Poor

14–90

Moderate

Adequate

14–180

Moderate

Adequate

 

Acute Stroke: (Beebe and Lang, 2009)

Responsiveness:

 

 

Measure

1–3 months

1–6 months

ARAT

0.55

0.63

9HPT

0.52

0.66

SIS-Hand

1.02

0.86

 

Acute Stroke (Lang et al., 2006; mean age = 64 (14), Admission NIHSS = 5.3 (1.8); time between stroke and first assessment = 9.5 (4.5) days)Acute Stroke: (Beebe and Lang, 2009)

 

Responsiveness of the ARAT

 

 

Method

Day 0 to Day 14

Day 0 to Day 90

Single population all demonstrated large effect sizes

 

 

 

ARAT total score

1.018

1.390

ARAT gross subscore

0.729

0.984

ARAT grasp subscore

1.042

1.224

ARAT grip subscore

1.017

1.324

ARAT pinch subscore

0.854

1.494

 

(Edwards, 2012)

Responsiveness:

Measure (see time frame above)

Day 0-14

Day 0-90

ARAT Total Score

1.017

1.390

ARAT Gross Motor Score

0.729

0.984

ARAT Grasp Score

1.042

1.224

ARAT Grip Score

1.017

1.324

ARAT Pinch Score

0.854

1.494

(Murphy et al, 2013) Kinematic movement analysis and clinically meaningful improvement in the upper extremity were evaluated with kinematic movement analysis of a drinking task and the ARAT in 51 subjects 9 days and 3 months post stroke.

Kinematics

Clinically meaningful improvement in ARAT (95%CI)

Movement Time

-5.16 (-2.4; -8.4)

 

Movement Units

-6.96 (-2.4; -11.4)

 

Trunk Displacement

-2.58 (-1.2; -4.2)

 

 

 

 

 

(Tong and Hu, 2011) Twenty seven patients chronic post stroke (avg.4.92 years) with low level arm function participated in a robotic training paradigm and responsiveness was measured with the FMA, MSS and ARAT using the standardized response mean (SRM) and the Guyatt’s Responsiveness Index (GRI).

  • There were no significant gains in the scores on the ARAT after treatment (25.00 [11.25] to 25.86 [10.82])

  • The responsiveness was low with SRM 0.22 and GRI 0.81

  • The responsiveness was lower for the ARAT than the FMA and MSS. In addition, the responsiveness was lower than 0.85 reported in a previous Hseih study (2009) The ARAT may not be as responsive in patients with greater upper limb impairments (e.g. baseline ARAT score for the Hseih study was 42.72 + 12.11 compared to the Wei study with a baseline score of 23.48 + 11.62).

(Rabadi and Rabadi 2006)

  • The SRM was 0.68 (admission score of 23 ±24 and discharge score 36±23

  • This SRM was lower than reported by vanderLee and Roord (2002) which included subjects with a higher level of upper limb function (ARAT score 30.27 at baseline with subjects > 1 year post stroke)

(Hsieh, 2009)

  • The standardized response mean (95% CI) of the ARAT was found to be 0.95 (0.75, 1.20, Wilcoxon Z = 4.64, p<0.01).

  • The ARAT had a smaller standardized response mean (difference in SRM (95%CI) when compared against the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (0.47 (0.09, 0.89, p<0.05)) and the Wolf-Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (0.35 (-0.01, 0.78, p = not significant)). However, the ARAT had a greater standardized response mean when compared to the Wolf-Motor Function Test-Performance Time (0.57 (0.28, 0.86, p<0.05)).

(Lin, 2010)

  • The standardized response mean (95% CI) was found to be 0.79 (0.63-1.10, Wilcoxon Z = 5.76, p<0.001).

 

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